Published Articles and Chapters

[To view an article online, click its title. Unfortunately some articles are not available online, and some are behind paywalls].

2010- Present


Grusky, David B., Michael Hout, Timothy M. Smeeding, and C. Matthew Snipp. "The American Opportunity Study: A New Infrastructure for Monitoring Outcomes, Evaluating Policy, and Advancing Basic Science" Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 5: 20-39.

Eaton, Charlie, Sheisha Kulkarni, Robert Birgeneau, Henry Brady, and Michael Hout. "The Organizational Ecology of College Affordability: Research Activity, State Grant Aid Policies, and Student Debt at U.S. Public Universities." Socius 4:

Dykema, Jennifer, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Dana Garbarski, and Michael Hout. "The Role of Question Characteristics in Designing and Evaluating Survey Questions." Forthcoming in Advances in Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation and Testing, edited by Paul Beatty, Debbie Collins, Lyn Kaye, Jose-Luis Padilla, Gordon B. Willis, and Amanda Wilmot. New York: Wiley.


Hout, Michael. “Americans’ occupational status reflects the status of both of their parents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115 (38) 9527-9532.

Hout, Michael.  “The Employment Patterns of Young Adults, 1989-2014.” Pp. 19-34 in Youth, Jobs, and the Future: Problems and Prospects. Edited by Lynn S. Chancer, Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, and Christine Trost. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Hout, Michael. “Religious Ambivalence, Liminality, and the Increase of No Religious Preference in the United States, 2006-2014.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55: 52-63.


Hout, Michael and Orestes P. Hastings. “Reliability of the Core Items in the General Social Survey: Estimates from the Three-wave Panels, 2006–2014.” Sociological Science 3: 971-1002. 

Hout, Michael. “Money and Morale: Growing Inequality Affects How Americans View Themselves and Others.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 663: 204-228.

Hout, Michael. “St. Peter’s Leaky Boat: Falling Intergenerational Persistence Among US-Born Catholics Since 1974.” Sociology of Religion 77: 1-17.


Hout, Michael. “A Summary of What We Know About Social Mobility.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 657: 27-36.


Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer. “Explaining Why More Americans Have No Religious Preference: Political Backlash and Generational Succession, 1987-2012.Sociological Science 1: 423-447.


Hout, Michael, and Daniel Laurison. “The Realignment of U.S. Presidential Voting, 1948-2004.” Chapter 119 in Social Stratification: Race, Class, and Gender in Sociological Perspective [4th edition], edited by David Grusky. Boulder CO: Westview Press.

Hout, Michael, and Avery M. Guest. “Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Britain and the U.S. Since 1850.American Economic Review 103: 2021-2040.

Hout, Michael, Claude S. Fischer, and Mark A. Chaves. "More Americans Have No Religion: Key Finding from the New General Social Survey." Working paper.


Hout, Michael. “Social and Economic Returns to Higher Education in the United States.” Annual Review of Sociology 38: 379-400.

Hout, Michael, and Andrew M. Greeley. “Religion and Happiness.” Pp. 288-314 in Social Trends in American Life, edited by Peter V. Marsden. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hout, Michael, Stuart Elliot, and Sara Frueh. “Do High-stakes Tests Improve Learning?” Issues in Science and Technology 29 (fall): 33-38.


Hout, Michael, Asaf Levanon, and Erin Cumberworth. “Job Loss and Unemployment During the Great Recession.” Pp. 59-91 in The Great Recession, edited by David B. Grusky, Bruce Western, and Christopher Wimer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Hout, Michael, and Alexander Janus. “Educational Mobility Since the 1930s.” Pp. 165-186 in Whither Opportunity?, edited by Greg Duncan and Richard Murnane. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


Kesler, Christel, and Michael Hout. “Entrepreneurship and Immigrant Wages in U.S. Labor Markets: A Multi-Level Approach.” Social Science Research 42: 187-201.




Hout, Michael. "How Class Works in Popular Conception: Most Americans Identify with the Class Their Income, Occupation, and Education Implies for Them." Ch. 2 in Social Class: How Does It Work?, edited by Annette Lareau and Dalton Conley. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Hout, Michael, and Benjamin Moodie. “The Realignment of U.S. Presidential Voting, 1948-2004.” Pp. 567-575 in Inequality: Readings in Race, Class, and Gender [3rd edition], edited by David Grusky. Boulder CO: Westview Press.


Hout, Michael. “Maximally Maintained Inequality Revisited: Irish Educational Stratification in Comparative Perspective.” Pp. 23-40 in Changing Ireland in International Comparison, edited by Betty Hilliard and Maire NicGhiolla Phadraig. Dublin: Liffey Press.


Hout, Michael, and Thomas A. DiPrete. "RC28's Contribution to Knowledge: An Assessment and an Agenda for the Future." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 24: 1-20.

Hout, Michael, and Emily Beller. "Intergenerational Social Mobility in Comparative Perspective." The Future of Children 16: 19-36.

Beller, Emily, and Michael Hout. “Welfare States and Social Mobility.Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 24: 353-365.

Hout, Michael. “Economic Change and Social Mobility.” Pp. 112-130 in Inequalities of the World, edited by Goran Therborn. London: Verso.


Fischer, Claude S., and Michael Hout. “The Family in Trouble? Since When? For Whom?” Pp. 120-140 in The Family Transformed, edited by Steven M. Tipton, and John Witte, Jr. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. 


Gerber, Theodore P., and Michael Hout. "Tightening Up: Inter- and Intragenerational Mobility in Russia, 1988-2002." American Sociological Review 69 (October): 677-703.

Fischer, Claude S., Gretchen Stockmayer, Jon Stiles, and Michael Hout. “Distinguishing the Levels and Dimensions of U.S. Metropolitan Segregation, 1960-2000.Demography 41: 37-59.

Hout, Michael. “Social Mobility and Inequality: A Review and an Agenda.” Ch. 26 in Social Consequences of Growing Inequality, edited by Kathryn Neckerman. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Evans, William R., Susan Mayer, and Michael Hout. “Inequality Effects” Ch. 27 in Social Consequences of Growing Inequality, edited by Kathryn Neckerman. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Hout, Michael. “Educational Progress for African Americans and Latinos Since the 1950s.” Pp. 262-297 in Ethnicity and Social Mobility in Comparative Perspective, edited by Glenn Loury, Tariq Modood, and Steven Teles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hout, Michael, and Melissa J. Wilde. “The Denominational Society in the United States: A Reappraisal.” Pp. 19-49 in Patterns and Processes of Religious Change in Modern Industrial Societies: Europe and the United States, edited by Alasdair Crockett and Richard O’Leary. London: Edwin Mellen.


Hout, Michael. “Demographic Methods for the Study of Religion.” Pp. 145-154 in Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, edited by Michele Dillon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hout, Michael, “The Inequality-Mobility Paradox.” New Economy 10: 205-207.


Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer, "Explaining the Rise of Americans with No Religious Preference: Generations and Politics."American Sociological Review 67: 165-190.

Hout, Michael, “Test Scores, Education, and Poverty.” Pp. 329-54 in Race and Intelligence, edited by Jefferson Fish. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Hout, Michael, Andrew M. Greeley, and Melissa J. Wilde, "The Demographic Imperative in Religious Change." American Journal of Sociology 107: 468-500.

Goodman, Leo A., and Michael Hout. “Statistical Methods and Graphical Displays for Comparing How Two-Way Associations Vary Among Countries, Among Groups, or Over Time, Part II: Some Simple Extensions and Simple Examples.” Sociological Methodology 31: 189-211.


Hout, Michael, and Harvey S. Rosen. “Self-employment, Race, and Family Background.Journal of Human Resources 35: 670-693.

Hout, Michael, “Social Mobility.” 840-841 in The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2nd edition), edited by Joel Krieger. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hout, Michael, “Alienation Among Divorced and Remarried Catholics in the United States.” America

Prior to 2000

[To view an article online, click its title. Unfortunately some articles are not available online, and some are behind paywalls].

1999 Hout, Michael. "Abortion Politics in the United States, 1972-1996." Gender Issues 17: 3-34.

1999 Greeley, Andrew, and Michael Hout. “Americans’ Increasing Belief in Life After Death: Competition and Assimilation.American Sociological Review 65 (December): 813-836. 

1999 Greeley, Andrew, and Michael Hout, “Measuring the Strength of the Christian Right.” Christian Century 116 (September): 810-813.

1999 Hout, Michael, Jeff Manza, and Clem Brooks. “Classes, Unions, and the Realignment of U.S. Presidential Voting, 1952-1992.” Pp. 114-130 in The End of Class Politics?, edited by Geoff Evans. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1998 Gerber, Theodore P., and Michael Hout. "More Shock Than Therapy: Employment and Incomes in Russia, 1991-1996." American Journal of Sociology 104 (July): 1-51.

1998 Goodman, Leo A., and Michael Hout. “Statistical Methods and Graphical Displays for Comparing How Two-Way Associations Vary Among Countries, Among Groups, or Over Time.” Sociological Methodology 28: 175-239 (with discussion by Yu Xie, pp. 231-236, Kazuo Yamaguchi, pp. 237-248, and Goodman-Hout, pp. 249-262).

1998 Hout, Michael, and Andrew M. Greeley. “What Church Officials’ Reports Don’t Show: Another Look at Church Attendance Data.” American Sociological Review (February): 113-119.

1997 Hout, Michael. “Inequality at the Margins: The Effects of Welfare, the Minimum Wage, and Tax Credits on Low-Wage Labor Markets.Politics and Society 25 (December): 513-524.

1997 Arum, Richard, and Michael Hout. “The Early Returns: School-to-Work Transitions in the United States.” Pp. 130-146 in Educational Origins and Class Destinations, edited by Walter Müller and Yossi Shavit. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

1997 Yamashita, Robert C., Thomas Piazza, Howard Besser, Troy Duster, and Michael Hout. “The Quality of the Quantity: Information Technology and the Evaluation of Data.Bulletin of Sociological Methodology 54 (March): 317-325.

1996 Hout, Michael, Richard Arum, and Kim Voss. “The Political Economy of Inequality in the ‘Age of Extremes’.” Demography 33 (November): 421-425.

1996 Hout, Michael, and Samuel R. Lucas. “Narrowing the Income Gap Between Rich and Poor.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 11 August, p. B1. [reprinted in Race, Class, and Gender in the United States, edited by Paula S. Rothenberg. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998].

1995 Hout, Michael, Clem Brooks, and Jeff Manza. "The Democratic Class Struggle in U.S. Presidential Elections: 1948-1992." American Sociological Review 60 (December): 805-828.

1995 Gerber, Theodore P., and Michael Hout. “Educational Stratification in Russia During the Soviet Period.” American Journal of Sociology 101 (November): 611-660.

1995 Hout, Michael, and Daniel P. Dohan. “Two Paths to Equality of Educational Opportunity: Sweden and the United States Compared.” Pp. 121-146 in Equality of Educational Opportunity in Sweden: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, edited by Robert Erikson and Janne Jonsson. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

1995 Manza, Jeff, Clem Brooks, and Michael Hout. “Class Voting in Western Democracies.” Annual Review of Sociology 21:137-163.

1995 Hout, Michael. “Politics of Mobility.” Pp. 301-325 in Generating Social Stratification, edited by Alan C. Kerckhoff. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

1994 Hout, Michael, and Joshua R. Goldstein. "How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Came to Be 41 Million Irish Americans: Demographic, Social, and Subjective Components of the Ethnic Composition of the White Population of the United States." American Sociological Review 59 (February): 64-82.

1993 Raftery, Adrian E., and Michael Hout. "Maximally Maintained Inequality: Educational Stratification in Ireland". Sociology of Education 65 (January): 41-62.

1993 Hout, Michael, Clem Brooks, and Jeff Manza. “Persistence of Classes in Postindustrial Societies.” International Sociology 8 (September): 259-278.

1992 Hout, Michael, and Robert M. Hauser. “Hierarchy and Symmetry in Occupational Mobility.” European Sociological Review 8 (December): 239-266.

1991 Hout, Michael. “Social Mobility.” Pp. 840-841 in Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, edited by Joel Krieger. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1990 Hout, Michael. “Counting the Returnees.” Catholic World 112 (January): 29-38.

1989 Greeley, Andrew M., and Michael Hout, “The Secularization Myth.” The Tablet (10 June): 665-668.

1988 Hout, Michael. "More Universalism and Less Structural Mobility: The American Occupational Structure in the 1980s." American Journal of Sociology 93 (May): 1358-1400.

1988 Sniderman, Paul M., Philip E. Tetlock, Donald Green, James Glaser, and Michael Hout. “Principled Tolerance and American Mass Public.” British Journal of Political Science 19 (September): 25-45.

1988 Greeley, Andrew M., and Michael Hout. “Musical Chairs: Patterns of Denominational Change in the United States, 1947-1986.” Sociology and Social Research 72 (January): 75-86.

1987 Hout, Michael, and Andrew M. Greeley. "The Center Doesn't Hold: Church Attendance in the United States, 1940-1984." American Sociological Review 52: 325-345.

1987 Hout, Michael, Otis Dudley Duncan, and Michael E. Sobel. “Association and Heterogeneity: Structural Models of Similarities and Differences.” Sociological Methodology 17: 145-184.

1986 Hout, Michael and John A. Jackson. “Dimensions of Occupational Mobility in the Republic of Ireland.European Sociological Review 2 (September): 114-137.

1986 Hout, Michael. “Opportunity and the Minority Middle Class: A Comparison of Blacks in the U.S. with Catholics in Northern Ireland.American Sociological Review 51 (April): 212-223.

1985 Sobel, Michael E., Michael Hout, and Otis Dudley Duncan. "Exchange, Structure, and Symmetry in Occupational Mobility." American Journal of Sociology 91 (September): 359-372.

1985 Raftery, Adrian E., and Michael Hout. “Does Irish Education Approach the Meritocratic Ideal?” Economic and Social Review 16 (January): 115-140. [22]

1985 Sullivan, Teresa A., Francis P. Gillespie, Michael Hout, and Richard G. Rogers. “Alternative Estimates of Mexican American Mortality in Texas, 1980.” Social Science Quarterly 65 (June): 609-617.

1984 Hout, Michael. "Occupational Mobility of Black Men: 1962-1973." American Sociological Review 49 (June): 308-322.

1984 Hout, Michael. “Status, Autonomy, and Training in Occupational Mobility.” American Journal of Sociology 89 (May): 1379-1409.

1983 Gillespie, Francis P., Andrew M. Greeley, Michael Hout, and Teresa A. Sullivan. “Public Policy, Ethnic Codes, and Hispanic Vital Statistics.” La Red/The Net 70 (July): 913ff.

1983 Gillespie, Francis P., Teresa A. Sullivan, Michael Hout, and Andrew M. Greeley. “Surname Versus SelfIdentification in the Analysis of Hispanic Data.” Proceedings of the American Statistical Association 80 (August): 117-122.

1982 Hout, Michael. “The Association Between Husbands’ and Wives’ Occupations in Two-Earner Families.American Journal of Sociology 87 (September): 397-409.

1982 Hout, Michael. “Using Uniform Association Models: An Example from Delinquency Research.” Pp. 115-128 in Quantitative Criminology: Innovations and Applications, edited by John Hagan. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.

1981 Garnier, Maurice A. and Michael Hout. “Schooling Processes and Educational Outcomes in France.” Quality and Quantity 15 (Summer): 151-177.

1980 Hout, Michael. “Trade Dependence and Fertility in Hispanic America: 1900-1975.” Pp. 159-188 in Studies of the Modern World System, edited by Albert Bergesen. New York: Academic Press.

1979 Hout, Michael, and Maurice A. Garnier. “Curriculum Placement and Educational Stratification in France.” Sociology of Education 52 (July): 146-156.

1979 Hout, Michael. “Age Structure, Unwanted Fertility, and the Association Between Racial Composition and Family Planning Program Services.” Social Forces 57 (June): 1387-1393.

1978 Hout, Michael. "Determinants of Marital Fertility in the United States, 1968- 1970: Inferences from a Dynamic Model." Demography 15 (May): 139-161.

1977 Hout, Michael. “Family Planning Program Activity and Patient Enrollments in the United States.” Demography 14 (May): 213-222.

1977 Hout, Michael. “Determinants of Patient Enrollments in Publicly Funded Family Planning Programs: 1969-1971.” Pp. 33-54 in The Impact of Family Planning Programs on Fertility: The U.S. Experience, by Phillips Cutright and Frederick S. Jaffe. New York: Praeger.

1977 Hamblin, Robert L., Michael Hout, Jerry L. L. Miller, and Brian L. Pitcher. “Arms Races: A Test of Two Models.” American Sociological Review 42 (April): 338-354.

1977 Hout, Michael. “A Cautionary Note on the Use of TwoStage Least Squares.” Sociological Methods and Research 5 (February): 335-346.

1976 Cutright, Phillips, Michael Hout, and David R. Johnson. “Structural Determinants of Fertility in Latin America: 1800-1970.” American Sociological Review 41 (June): 511-526.

1976 Garnier, Maurice A., and Michael Hout. “Inequality of Educational Opportunity in France and the United States.” Social Science Research 5 (September): 225-246.

1975 Hout, Michael, and William R. Morgan. “Race and Sex Variations in the Causes of Expected Attainments.” American Journal of Sociology 81 (September): 364-394.

1975 Hout, Michael, and David Knoke. “Change in Voting Turnout: 1952-1972.” Public Opinion Quarterly 39 (Spring): 52-62.

1974 Knoke, David, and Michael Hout. “Social and Demographic Factors in American Political Party Preferences.” American Sociological Review 39 (October): 700-713.